Information sceince has deep historical roots accented with significant crontroversy and conflicting views.The consepts of this science may be at the heart of many disciplines, but the emergence of information science has been limited to the twentieth century. Protracted discussion of the definition of information, knowledge, comunication, and uncertainty have created insight into the complexies of human information behaviors and the information scientist may be the best demostrator of the science.
This chapter presents a grandiose view of information to encourage the discussion of information in all its possible roles as well as a brief historical foundation of information science to provide some location in the time for this discussion.
The foundation is not comprehensive, that would be a volume in and of it self, but it highlights some situations and people that contributed to the development of information science today.
As there are many disciplines that contribute to this field, it is not possible to identify all the key figures.
The preliterate traditions were linked to human carries; faithfulness to completeness and accuracy in the rendition of the information was critical, as well as considered a sacred duty and much admired skill(Riesman, 1960). The development of writing, even in a pictorial form, was a method for preserving what was seen or occurred, and allowed it to be shared without requiring both parties to be the same place at the same time. Exemplars would be cave paintings in France, clay tablets from the Middle East, the pottery of the native Americans, the hand-scripted manuscripts of the Middle Ages. All of these permit the sharing of information, and indeed are themselves information as well as carries, without requiring a human host, and often surviving the originating community (Riesman).Could not the potentially influence others, contribute an expanding view and understanding, altering what was viewed as information, even what was considered knowledge and truth?
The discussion of what is information science and what has been on going debate for several decades. In 1968.
20- Decades: Décadas
In seeking a new sense of identity, we ask, in this article the question:
What is information science? What does the information scientist do?
Tentative answers to these questions are given in the hope stimulating discussion that will help clarify the nature o four field and our work.
Now that the American Documentation Institute has voted to change its name to the American Society for Information Science, many of us have been forced to try to explain to friends and colleagues what information
Science is, what an information scientist does, and how all of this relates to librarianship and documentation. Those of us who have tried to make such explanations know that this is a difficult task… As an exercise I decided to prepare an answer to these questions at leisure rather than under the pressure of a direct inquiry. Let me state at the outset that I don’t think have the answer. It is hoped that this paper may provide a focus for discussion so that we can clarify our thinking and perhaps be more articulate about who we are and what we do.
Uncertainty in this context meant that the receiver had to select among various possibilities to determine the correct signal.
When a cat cries, the sound itself is a signal, the sound is carried through the air, the channel, and received by your eardrums, which the sound causes to vibrate.
The color of the sky informs of aspects of the weather – a clear blue sky tells us of a different sort of weather than a gray-black cloudy sky.
For example, when selecting a stock, you may perform extensive research to evaluate a given company’s historical stock performance, the behavior of the management team and the current and predicted status of the market in which they operate.
Two hundred years ago the stagecoach was an information channel, indeed, a part of a communication system.
Few of us have ever walked on the moon; most of us can only imagine the way the moon-ground feels beneath the foot, or how it feels to lumber about in spacesuits.
In some ways, we all remain naïve, limited by the boundaries of our experiences and those who first contributed to our image.
A fundamental principle of human communication is that the exchange of ideas occurs most frequently between individuals who are alike, or homophonous.
The noise may be entrenchment, wherein the participants hold their beliefs as inviolate and cannot accept any deviation or suggestion thereof.
Association seems to play a large role in cognition and has been a powerful influence in the design of classification system.
If the store were arranged alphabetically, there would have to be agreement about what each item would de called.
By imposing a structures, preferably one with clear criteria for inclusion, with rules for placement and association, a blueprint is created that permits the location of items based on the rules that position them in the collection.
56-Blueprint: Desenho técnico
For example, vertebrates are creatures with back-bones, a appose to no vertebrates, which are creatures without back-bone.
All members of the family of Felidae are carnivorous, mammals with backbones.
Bibliometrics uses quantitative and qualitatively descriptive, such as statistics and mathematical analysis, to examine documents. However, the study of bibliometrics is also concerned with document surrogates, the relations that might be derived or inferred related to the production, manipulation or redistribution of information (Buckland, 1991; Pao, 1989; White and Mc-Cain, 1989). The word bibliometrics sac be divided in to “biblio’, which refers to books or bibliographies, and “metrics”, which refers to measurement.
Human information is stored in a variety of media amenable to measurement, including text, film, electronic, aural recordings, art, and other recordable or translatable formats. Some researchers separate the study of information and communication forms into separate groups such as data, information, knowledge, and other documents or text.
Retrospective examination of database collections to identify any potential patterns or statistically significant variations may yield new insight into the objects of the database…
79-Database: Banco de Dados
It may also be a way to establish what the focus of interests, or new topics, in a discipline were at a given time or the influences affecting the field.
In 1945, Hayek discussed the market mechanism as a way in which information is valued.
Fritiz Macchlup (1979) examined the issues involved in measuring the value of information and offered several cost-benefit analysis considerations for use in this effort.
Historically, these authors have crated the paths used to review information value and attempted to cope with the complexities of the value of information
88- Authors: Autores
Attempts to clarify the definition of information to attend to the issue of valuing it have engaged economists and information scientist in cost-benefit analysis discussions, commodity, versus resource debates , probability, theory, game theory, and multitudes of various other controversies.
Key to any discussion of information value has to be the context of the consideration, which is one of the areas that economic modeling tends to simplify beyond recognition.
Actual information value is steep in enormous context, built by the actors, the environment, and the antipated, of hoped for, outcomes.
Value refers to the utility, which is assumed, demonstrated, or bestowed upon an emit activity, or product utility equals use or usefulness.
Identity characteristics include cultural, personal, and organizational components.
Traditions, information about the conduct of a particular group, pass from one generation to another as the continuance of a body of information that separates from another.
In renovation of information, international modification ,intentional is undertaken, such as adjusting all books to use politically correct gender descriptors; this changes the information conveyed and depending on which side issue one stands changes he value placed upon that information.
In parts of the academic word, the organizational structure rewards seekers of new information with little regard to the value of that information.
Purchasers of information must make more complex decisions about information than about physical materials.
Many new products and much new information emerged from the NASA programs to the reach the moon.
The equipment will degrade over time, but if it is used to its fullest, integrated into the curriculum so that students and teachers are maximizing results, the depreciation would be appropriate over time and still be a benefit as even an old system is useful when properly integrated and managed.
And essentially, evolution of computer technology, especially networking systems, has impacted every aspect of the traditional organization.
These transitional organization states, where information technology is not fully installed or implemented, can have negative effects on the organization at both and micro levels.
Sweat and Hubbard (june21,1999)report that while expenditures on customer services and software expanded from $ 200million to over $ 1 billion between 1994 and 1997, indications Index fell from 74,5 to 70.1 during the same period.
111-Customer: Cliente112-Services: Serviços